Chapter 25 : Adverbs of manner & Comparisons

posted on 09 Oct 2006 13:12 by ilovehoneybee  in Chapter1to28

ADVERBS OF MANNER AND ADVERBS USED IN COMPARISONS

1. Adverbs of manner


Adverbs of manner are the largest group of adverbs. Most adverbs of manner are closely related to corresponding adjectives. Although some words can be used as either adjectives or adverbs, in most cases, adverbs of manner are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives.

a. Spelling rules for adding ly
In most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

bad

badly

complete

completely

normal

normally

surprising

surprisingly


i. Adjectives ending in ic
However, when the adjective ends in ic, the syllable al is usually added before the ly ending. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

dramatic

dramatically

scientific

scientifically

specific

specifically



ii. Adjectives ending in le
When the adjective ends in le preceded by a consonant, the final e is usually changed to y, to form the ly ending. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

favorable

favorably

humble

humbly

simple

simply


When the adjective ends in le preceded by a vowel, in most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

agile

agilely

sole

solely


However, in the case of the adjective whole, the final e is removed before the ending ly is added:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

whole

wholly



iii. Adjectives ending in ll
When the adjective ends in ll, only y is added. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

dull

dully

full

fully

shrill

shrilly



iv. Adjectives ending in ue
When the adjective ends in ue, the final e is usually omitted before the ending ly is added. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

due

duly

true

truly



v. Adjectives ending in y
When the adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is usually changed to i before the ending ly is added. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

busy

busily

easy

easily

happy

happily


However, in the case of the adjectives shy and sly, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

shy

shyly

sly

slyly


When the adjective ends in y preceded by a vowel, in most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

coy

coyly

grey

greyly


However, in the case of the adjective gay, y is changed to i before the ending ly is added:

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

gay

gaily



Exercise 1.

For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the adverb which corresponds to the adjective given in brackets. For example:
The letter was ________ legible. (scarce) The letter was scarcely legible.

He did the work as _________ as possible. (careful) He did the work as carefully as possible.

They won the game ______. (easy) They won the game easily.

She handled the situation very _______. (capable) She handled the situation very capably.

I _____ expected that to happen. (full) I fully expected that to happen.

The view was _____ magnificent. (true) The view was truly magnificent.

The theory has never been ______________ proved. (scientific)
The theory has never been scientifically proved.

1. I was __________ impressed by their courage. (due)
2. The children chattered _____________. (noisy)
3 The sun shone _____________ behind the clouds. (pale)
4. They have settled in ______________. (comfortable)
5. He _______________ maintained his point of view. (dogmatic)
6. Everything is proceeding ___________. (normal)
7. Please drive ____________. (slow)
8. She worked _____________ until nine o'clock. (steady)
9. The cost of fuel has risen ______________. (dramatic)
10. He _____________ scrambled up the slope. (agile)
ii. Everything was explained clearly and ____________. (simple)
12. The train whistle blew ____________ at the crossing. (shrill)
13. ____________ , it stopped raining before we had to leave. (lucky)
14. She was signaling ______________. (frantic)
15. That was ____________ unexpected. (whole)
16. We arrived _____________. (punctual)
17. England is a ____________ populated country. (dense)
18. They are ___________ dependent on coal for fuel. (sole)
19. The material was produced _______________. (synthetic)
20. They ___________ agreed to the proposal. (ready)

It should be noted that while most adverbs which end in ly are adverbs of manner, other types of adverb may also end in ly. For instance, consequently and subsequently are connecting adverbs. The following are adverbs of frequency which are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives.

Adjective

Adverb of Frequency

frequent

frequently

rare

rarely

usual

usually



b. Adverbs which do not use the ending ly
The adverb of manner well appears unrelated to the corresponding adjective, good. Good and well both have the comparative form better and the superlative form best.

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

good

well


It should be noted that in addition to being used as an adverb, the word well can also be used as an adjective with the meaning healthy. The adjective well is most often used as a predicate adjective.
e.g. Well used as an Adjective: I hope you are well.
Well used as an Adverb: He did well on the examination.
In the first example, well is a predicate adjective, modifying the pronoun you. In the second example, well is an adverb of manner, modifying the verb did.

The following table gives examples of adverbs of manner, location, time and frequency which have the same forms as the corresponding adjectives.

Adjective

Adverb of Manner

fast

fast

hard

hard

little

little

loud

loud or loudly

much

much

straight

straight

Adjective

Adverb of Location

far

far

high

high

low

low

near

near

wide

wide

Adjective

Adverb of Time

early

early

first

first

late

late

long

long

Adjective

Adverb of Frequency

daily

daily

monthly

monthly

weekly

weekly

yearly

yearly



Exercise 2.

2. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the adverb which corresponds to the adjective given in brackets. For example:
He hit the ball ____. (hard) He hit the ball hard.

The newspaper is delivered _____. (daily) The newspaper is delivered daily.

She did ____ in the competition. (good) She did well in the competition.

Please close the door _______. (quiet) Please close the door quietly.

1. I drove ____________ home. (straight)
2. We came to work ____________. (early)
3. She ____________ filled in the answers. (quick)
4. He like to drive ____________. (fast)
5. We proceeded ______________. (cautious)
6. He threw the ball ____________ into the air. (high)
7. How __________ do you know her? (good)
8. We arrived _________. (late)
9. They did the work ___________. (bad)
10. He spoke ___________. (little)
ii. The gathering is held . (annual)
12. They replied _____________. (immediate)
13. The workers met ____________. (weekly)
14. I will deal with that problem ____________. (first)
15. They were ______________ dressed for the occasion. (suitable)

It should also be noted that there are several adjectives ending in ly which have no corresponding adverbs:

friendly
likely
lively
lonely
silly
ugly

When it is desired to use one of these words to modify a verb, an adverb phrase of manner may be used. In the following examples, the adverb phrases are underlined.
e.g. He behaved in a friendly manner.
They acted in a silly way.

The following table gives examples of pairs of adverbs which are closely related, but which have different meanings.

Adverbs With and Without ly Endings

Adverb

Meaning

Adverb

Meaning

hard

with effort

hardly

scarcely

high

opposite of low

highly

very; very well

late

opposite of early

lately

recently

near

opposite of far

nearly

almost

wide

opposite of narrow

widely

commonly


The meanings of these adverbs are illustrated in the following examples.
e.g. I worked hard.
I have hardly enough time to finish.

He threw the ball high into the air.
He is highly successful in what he does.

The class began late.
The weather has been cold lately.

I held my breath as the squirrel crept near to get the nuts.
I have nearly finished reading the book.

I opened the door wide.
That theory is widely believed.

c. The differing functions of adjectives and adverbs
When an adverb differs in form from a corresponding adjective, it is necessary to distinguish between the functions of adjectives and adverbs in order to determine which form should be used in a given situation.

Whereas adjectives modify nouns, pronouns, and expressions which serve the same grammatical functions as nouns; adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

i. Adjectives which modify nouns compared with adverbs which modify verbs
The following examples illustrate the distinction which must be made between adjectives which modify nouns and adverbs which modify verbs. The adjectives and adverbs are printed in bold type, and the words which are modified are underlined.
e.g. Adjective: It has been a quiet afternoon.
Adverb: The afternoon passed quietly.

Adjective: She is a good musician.
Adverb: She plays the flute very well.

In the first pair of sentences, the adjective quiet modifies the noun afternoon, whereas the adverb quietly modifies the verb passed. In the second pair of sentences, the adjective good modifies the noun musician, whereas the adverb well modifies the verb plays.

In informal English, adjectives are sometimes used to modify verbs.
e.g. She plays good.
In this example, the adjective good is used to modify the verb plays. However, this use of adjectives is considered to be grammatically incorrect.

Exercise 3.

3. For each of the following sentences, pay attention to whether the word to be placed in the blank modifies a noun or a verb, and complete the sentence with either the adjective given in brackets or the corresponding adverb, as appropriate. For example:
It is necessary to wear _____ clothes in the winter. (thick)
It is necessary to wear thick clothes in the winter.

Snow fell _______ on the ground. (thick) Snow fell thickly on the ground.

1. We ______________ concluded the deal. (successful)
2. He is a ______________ businessman. (successful)
3. There was a ___________ rain in the morning. (light)
4. She ran ____________ up the steps. (light)
5. The path was ____________ marked. (clear)
6. We gave him a ____________ signal to continue. (clear)
7. I ___________ disagree with you. (strong)
8. There is a ____________ wind from the north. (strong)
9. She waved _____________. (cheerful)
10. I gazed at the __________ water of the lake. (tranquil)
11. The engine operates as ______________ as possible. (efficient)
12. Is that a ____________ decision? (recent)
13. He has behaved very ______________. (responsible)
14. ____________ snow is forecast for tomorrow. (heavy)
15. I opened the door ____________ and stepped outside. (quiet)
16. Icicles hung from the ____________ needles of the pine trees. (dark)


ii. Adjectives which modify nouns compared with adverbs which modify adjectives
The following examples illustrate the distinction which must be made between adjectives which modify nouns and adverbs which modify adjectives.
e.g. Adjective: a large wooden building
Adverb: a largely wooden building

Adjective: conspicuous dark clouds
Adverb: conspicuously dark clouds

In the first pair of phrases, the adjective large modifies the noun building, and the adverb largely modifies the adjective wooden. Thus, the phrase a large wooden building has the meaning a big wooden building, whereas the phrase a largely wooden building has the meaning a building mostly made of wood.

In the second pair of phrases, the adjective conspicuous modifies the noun clouds, and the adverb conspicuously modifies the adjective dark. Thus, the phrase conspicuous dark clouds means that the clouds themselves are noticeable; whereas the phrase conspicuously dark clouds means that the darkness of the clouds is noticeable.

Exercise 4.


4. For each of the following sentences, pay attention to whether the word to be placed in the blank modifies a noun or an adjective, and complete the sentence with either the adjective given in brackets or the corresponding adverb, as appropriate. For example:
A ____ wooden fence surrounded the playground. (high)
A high wooden fence surrounded the playground.

A ______ skilled worker will be required for this job. (high)
A highly skilled worker will be required for this job.

1. They have a _________ front lawn. (wide)
2. He has challenged a __________ held theory. (wide)
3. Every author likes to receive ___________ book reviews. (favorable)
4. ____________ situated farms often produce higher yields than other farms. (favorable)
5. Many ______________ incomprehensible phenomena have been explained with the help of modern science. (previous)
6. Many _____________ city councils have succeeded in balancing the budget. (previous)
7. ____________ weather conditions have prevailed for the past ten days. (unusual)
8. An ______________ large number of variables must be taken into account. (extreme)
9. ______________ few people understand the situation. (relative)
10. She wrote a ______________ short story. (humorous)
11. That was a ____________ occurring event. (frequent)
12. Our city boasts a _____________ bus service. (frequent)
13. It was a __________ Easter Sunday. (hot)
14. It was a __________ debated issue. (hot)


iii. Predicate adjectives which modify the subjects of verbs compared with adverbs which modify verbs
As pointed out previously, certain verbs, called linking verbs, can be followed by predicate adjectives. A distinction must be made between predicate adjectives which modify the subjects of linking verbs, and adverbs which modify verbs.

A few linking verbs, such as the verb to be, can be followed by predicate adjectives, but cannot be modified by adverbs of manner. In the following examples using the verb to be, the nouns which are modified are underlined.
e.g. He is happy.
The wind was strong.
In these examples, the predicate adjectives happy and strong modify the subjects he and wind.

However, there are several verbs which can be used either as linking verbs followed by predicate adjectives, or as non-linking verbs modified by adverbs of manner. The following examples illustrate the use of the verb to appear as a linking verb and as a non-linking verb.
e.g. Linking Verb: His uncle appeared kind.
Non-linking Verb: His uncle appeared punctually at ten o'clock.

In the first example, kind is a predicate adjective which modifies the noun uncle. In the second example, punctually is an adverb of manner which modifies the verb appeared.

The verbs below can be used either as linking or non-linking verbs:

to appear

to become

to feel

to grow

to look

to remain

to smell

to sound

to taste

to turn


If the subject of the verb is to be modified, a predicate adjective is required after such verbs; whereas if the verb is to be modified, an adverb is required. In the pairs of examples below, the verbs to grow, to look and to turn are used first as linking verbs followed by adjectives, and then as non-linking verbs modified by adverbs. The adjectives and adverbs are printed in bold type, and the words which are modified are underlined.

e.g. Adjective: As he became old, he grew slow at remembering dates.
Adverb: The tree grew slowly.

Adjective: They looked anxious.
Adverb: We looked anxiously up the street.

Adjective: The weather turned cold.
Adverb: She turned coldly away from the salesman.

In these examples, the predicate adjectives slow, anxious and cold modify the subjects he, they and weather; whereas the adverbs of manner slowly, anxiously and coldly modify the verbs grew, looked and turned.

Exercise 5.

5. For each of the following sentences, pay attention to whether the word to be placed in the blank modifies the verb or the subject of the verb, and complete the sentence with either the adjective given in brackets or the corresponding adverb, as appropriate. For example:
We tasted the soup ____________. (suspicious) We tasted the soup suspiciously.

The meal tasted _________. (delicious) The meal tasted delicious.

1. The moon appeared ____________ between the clouds. (brief)
2. He looked ______________. (happy)
3. He looked ______________ at the timetable. (attentive)
4. We felt ____________ after supper. (sleepy)
5. After the lights went out, we felt our way ____________ to our rooms. (sleepy)
6. The maple tree grew ____________. (quick)
7. The sky grew ____________. (dark)
8. He became ______________ at the thought of giving a speech. (excited)
9. She became a teacher ______________ after graduating. (immediate)
10. The pastries smelled ____________. (sweet)
11. We ____________ smelled the aroma of fresh bread. (eager)

2. Adverbs used in comparisons


a. The formation of comparative and superlative forms of adverbs
It should be noted that many adverbs, such as sometimes, never, here, there, now, then, first, again, yesterday and daily have no comparative or superlative forms.

i. Adverbs used with More and Most
Most adverbs used in comparisons, including those formed from corresponding adjectives by adding the ending ly, form the comparative with the word more, and the superlative with the word most. For example:

Positive Form

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

carefully

more carefully

most carefully

easily

more easily

most easily

frequently

more frequently

most frequently

slowly

more slowly

most slowly

softly

more softly

most softly



ii. Adverbs used with the endings er and est
Adverbs which have the same positive forms as corresponding adjectives generally also have the same comparative and superlative forms as the corresponding adjectives. For example:

Positive Form

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

early

earlier

earliest

fast

faster

fastest

hard

harder

hardest

high

higher

highest

late

later

latest

long

longer

longest

low

lower

lowest

near

nearer

nearest

straight

straighter

straightest


The adverb of time soon also uses the endings er and est:

Positive Form

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

soon

sooner

soonest


It should be noted that adverbs formed by adding ly to one-syllable adjectives are sometimes used with the endings er and est.
e.g. We walked slower and slower.
They sang the softest.

However, in modern English, it is generally considered to be more correct to write:
We walked more and more slowly.
They sang the most softly.

iii. Irregular adverbs
The irregular adverbs have the same comparative and superlative forms as the corresponding irregular adjectives:

Positive Form

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

badly

worse

worst

far

farther or further

farthest or furthest

little

less

least

much

more

most

well

better

best



b. Positive forms of adverbs used in comparisons
The constructions employed when adverbs are used in comparisons are very similar to those employed when adjectives are used in comparisons.

i. The construction with As ... As
When used in making comparisons, the positive form of an adverb is usually preceded and followed by as. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

as +

positive form +

as

of adverb

I can run

as

fast

as

you can.

He moves

as

slowly

as

a snail.

Her eyes shone

as

brightly

as

stars.


If desired, an adverb may be placed before the first occurrence of as:

adverb +

as +

positive form +

as

of adverb

I can run

twice

as

fast

as

you can.

Her eyes shone

almost

as

brightly

as

stars.



ii. Ellipsis
Ellipsis is often employed in comparisons using adverbs. For instance, in the second half of such comparisons, instead of repeating the verb, the first auxiliary may be used, or the verb may be omitted entirely. In the following examples, the words which would usually be omitted are enclosed in square brackets.
e.g. I can run as fast as you can [run].
He moves as slowly as a snail [moves].
Her eyes shone as brightly as stars [shine].

c. Comparative forms of adverbs used in comparisons

i. The construction with Than
When used in making comparisons, the comparative form of an adverb is usually followed by than. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

comparative form +

than

of adverb

He can swim

farther

than

I can.

She sings

more beautifully

than

her sister does.


As is the case with comparisons using adjectives, comparisons using adverbs can be combined with phrases or clauses.
e.g. She performs better in front of an audience than she does in rehearsal.
They walked faster when they were on their way to school than they did
when they were on their way home.

In the first example, the two situations being compared are distinguished by the phrases in front of an audience and in rehearsal. In the second example, the two situations being compared are distinguished by the clauses when they were on their way to school and when they were on their way home. The use of ellipsis should be noted. In the first example, the auxiliary does is used instead of repeating the verb performs. In the second example, the auxiliary did is used instead of repeating the verb walked.

Exercise 6.

6. Rewrite the following sentences as comparisons, using the comparative form of the adverb, and the word than. For each sentence, use the word or words given in brackets as the second part of the comparison. For example:
The living room was furnished elegantly. (the study)
The living room was furnished more elegantly than the study.

Because they were nervous, they performed badly. (they should have)
Because they were nervous, they performed worse than they should have.

1. The train travels fast. (the bus)
2. In the morning, the sun shone brightly. (in the afternoon)
3. The footpath runs straight. (the road)
4. Joe sings badly. (Rick)
5. I got up early. (you did)
6. The wild deer came near. (I had expected)
7. Her son plays the violin well. (her daughter does)
8. Captain Cook sailed far. (Columbus did)
9. You are late. (the others)
10. The stream flows swiftly. (the river)
11. She studies hard. (her classmates)
12. The project was completed successfully. (we had anticipated)



ii. Progressive comparisons
The comparative forms of adverbs can be used in progressive comparisons. For adverbs with the ending er, the following construction is used:

comparative form +

and +

comparative form

of adverb

of adverb

e.g. The plane flew

higher

and

higher.

The team performed

better

and

better.


The meanings expressed in these examples can also be expressed as follows:
e.g. The plane flew increasingly high.
The team performed increasingly well.

For adverbs which form the comparative with more, the following construction is used:

more +

and +

more +

positive form

of adverb

He solved the problems

more

and

more

easily.

We visited them

more

and

more

frequently.


The meanings expressed in these examples can also be expressed as follows:
e.g. He solved the problems increasingly easily.
We visited them increasingly frequently.

iii. The construction with Less and Less
A similar construction, employing the expression less and less, can also be used. The expressions less and less and more and more have opposite meanings.

less +

and +

less +

positive form

of adverb

He solved the problems

less

and

less

easily.

We visited them

less

and

less

frequently.


The meanings expressed in these examples can also be expressed as follows:
e.g. He solved the problems decreasingly easily.
We visited them decreasingly frequently.

Exercise 7.

7. Rewrite the following sentences, using progressive comparisons instead of the adverb increasingly, and using the expression less and less instead of the adverb decreasingly. For example:
The rain fell increasingly heavily. The rain fell more and more heavily.

The wind blew increasingly hard. The wind blew harder and harder.

Finally, the rain drummed decreasingly loudly on the roof.
Finally, the rain drummed less and less loudly on the roof.

1. As the evening wore on, we spoke decreasingly animatedly.
2. The spectators cheered increasingly loudly.
3. The chirping of the crickets disturbed us increasingly little.
4. As he grew older, he walked increasingly far.
5. The new shuttle service functioned increasingly reliably.
6. The sun shone decreasingly intensely.
7. As I became tired, I wrote increasingly slowly.
8. The boy learned to read increasingly well.

iv. The construction with The ..., the ...
Two clauses, each beginning with the, and each containing a comparative form of an adjective or adverb, can be used together in order to indicate a cause and effect relationship between two different things or events. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

comparative

1st part of

comparative

2nd part of

The +

form of adverb +

comparison, +

the +

form of adverb +

comparison

or adjective

or adjective

The

more

they eat,

the

fatter

they get.

The

faster

we skated,

the

warmer

we felt.


The following are further examples of the use of this type of construction. In these examples, the comparative forms are underlined.
e.g. The more cleverly we hid the Easter eggs, the more enthusiastically the children searched for them.
The more I scold her, the worse she behaves.
As shown in the examples, in this type of construction the two clauses beginning with the must be separated by a comma.

d. Superlative forms of adverbs used in comparisons

i. The construction with The
When used in making comparisons, the superlative form of an adverb is usually preceded by the. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.

the +

superlative form

of adverb

He jumped

the

highest

of all the boys in the class.

Our team plays

the

best

of all the teams in the league.

They sing

the

most sweetly

of all the choirs I have heard.


Exercises 8 and 9.

8. Rewrite each of the following sentences, changing the positive form of the adverb to the superlative form, and using the definite article the. Use the words given in brackets as the second part of the comparison. For example:
This window opens easily. (of all the windows in the room)
This window opens the most easily of all the windows in the room.

He plays this piece well. (of anyone in the band)
He plays this piece the best of anyone in the band.

1. She understood the lesson readily. (of all the pupils in the class)
2. This kite flies badly. (of all the kites I have ever made)
3. That train leaves early. (of all the trains departing from this station)
4. Last night it snowed hard. (of any night in the year)
5. The potato field produces little. (of all the fields on the farm)
6. This highway runs straight. (of all the highways in the country)
7. She speaks quietly. (of all the people I know)
8. The bass sings low. (of all the singers)
9. Eagles fly high. (of all the birds which live in the mountains)
10. She prepares meals well. (of all the students in the class)
11. They regard his proposal favorably. (of all the proposals they have received)
12. Bill ran far. (of all the boys)
13. His arrow came near. (to the center of the target)
14. This bus travels slowly. (of all the buses)
Answers

9. Paying attention to the sentence structure, complete each of the following sentences correctly by filling in the blank with the positive, comparative, or superlative form of the adverb given in brackets. For example:
We clapped as ______ as we could. (loudly) We clapped as loudly as we could.

They arrived _____________ than they had expected. (promptly)
They arrived more promptly than we had expected.

She swam the ________ of all the girls in the school. (far)
She swam the farthest of all the girls in the school.

The more you study, the ______ you will do on the test. (well)
The more you study, the better you will do on the test.

1. Cheetahs run the _______________ of all mammals. (fast)
2. We described our experiences as ______________ as we could. (vividly)
3. The more encores she sings, the _____________________ the audience applauds. (enthusiastically)
4. He practices the ___________________ of all the members of the team. (diligently)
5. The ___________ you study, the poorer your marks will be. (little)
6. He explains his ideas ____________________ than you do. (convincingly)
7. They wrote as _________________ as possible. (intelligibly)
8. Seagulls fly ______________ than ducks do. (well)
9. Birds of prey soar the _________________ of all birds. (impressively)
10. The ______________ you exercise, the stronger you will become. (much)
11. They have traveled as __________________ as possible. (widely)
12. She examined the material __________________ than I did. (thoroughly)
13. He explains the subject the __________________ of all the teachers in the school. (well)
14. Advanced skiers complete the course twice as ________________ as beginners. (rapidly)
15. I have written out the assignment __________________ than you have. (neatly)
16. The ______________ I walk, the more refreshed I feel. (far)


In the case of adverbs which form the superlative with the ending est, the superlative is sometimes preceded by a possessive adjective, instead of by the definite article, the. In the following examples, the possessive adjectives are printed in bold type.
e.g. He ran his fastest.
I did my best.

ii. The construction with The Least
Adverbs may also be preceded by the expression the least. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples. The words least and most have opposite meanings.

the +

least +

positive form

of adverb

She speaks

the

least

loudly

of all the children.

This bus runs

the

least

often.

Answers

Answers to Exercise 1:
1. duly 2. noisily 3. palely 4. comfortably 5. dogmatically 6. normally 7. slowly 8. steadily 9. dramatically 10. agilely 11. simply 12. shrilly 13. luckily 14. frantically 15. wholly 16. punctually 17. densely 18. solely 19. synthetically 20. readily

Answers to Exercise 2:
1. straight 2. early 3. quickly 4. fast 5. cautiously 6. high 7. well 8. late 9. badly 10. little 11. annually 12. immediately 13. weekly 14. first 15. suitably

Answers to Exercise 3:
1. successfully 2. successful 3. light 4. lightly 5. clearly 6. clear 7. strongly 8. strong 9. cheerfully 10. tranquil 11. efficiently 12. recent 13. responsibly 14. Heavy 15. quietly 16. dark

Answers to Exercise 4:
1. wide 2. widely 3. favorable 4. Favorably 5. previously 6. previous 7. Unusual 8. extremely 9. Relatively 10. humorous 11. frequently 12. frequent 13. hot 14. hotly

Answers to Exercise 5:
1. briefly 2. happy 3. attentively 4. sleepy 5. sleepily 6. quickly 7. dark 8. excited 9. immediately 10. sweet 11. eagerly

Answers to Exercise 6:
1. The train travels faster than the bus. 2. In the morning, the sun shone more brightly than in the afternoon. 3. The footpath runs straighter than the road. 4. Joe sings worse than Rick. 5. I got up earlier than you did. 6. The wild deer came nearer than I had expected. 7. Her son plays the violin better than her daughter does. 8. Captain Cook sailed farther than Columbus did. 9. You are later than the others. 10. The stream flows more swiftly than the river. 11. She studies harder than her classmates. 12. The project was completed more successfully than we had anticipated.

Answers to Exercise 7:
1. As the evening wore on, we spoke less and less animatedly. 2. The spectators cheered more and more loudly. 3. The chirping of the crickets disturbed us less and less. 4. As he grew older, he walked farther and farther. 5. The new shuttle service functioned more and more reliably. 6. The sun shone less and less intensely. 7. As I became tired, I wrote more and more slowly. 8. The boy learned to read better and better.

Answers to Exercise 8:
1. She understood the lesson the most readily of all the pupils in the class. 2. This kite flies the worst of all the kites I have ever made. 3. That train leaves the earliest of all the trains departing from this station. 4. Last night it snowed the hardest of any night in the year. 5. The potato field produces the least of all the fields on the farm. 6. This highway runs the straightest of all the highways in the country. 7. She speaks the most quietly of all the people I know. 8. The bass sings the lowest of all the singers. 9. Eagles fly the highest of all the birds which live in the mountains. 10. She prepares meals the best of all the students in the class. 11. They regard his proposal the most favorably of all the proposals they have received. 12. Bill ran the farthest of all the boys. 13. His arrow came the nearest to the center of the target. 14. This bus travels the most slowly of all the buses.

Answers to Exercise 9:
1. fastest 2. vividly 3. more enthusiastically 4. most diligently 5. less 6. more convincingly 7. intelligibly 8. better 9. most impressively 10. more 11. widely 12. more thoroughly 13. best 14. rapidly 15. more neatly 16. farther

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smilebig smileopen-mounthed smileconfused smilesad smileangry smiletonguequestionembarrassedsurprised smilewinkdouble winkcry ???????????????   ??????????????????
smilebig smileopen-mounthed smileconfused smilesad smileangry smiletonguequestionembarrassedsurprised smilewinkdouble winkcry ???????????????

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